Kimes Ranch Jean Company Launchs New Website

Kimes Ranch Jean Company Has Launched A New Website
Western never saw this coming!

(Scottsdale, June 24th, 2014) With their new take on a historical product, Kimes Ranch has launched a website this week unlike any in the western world.  Disposing of any stereotypical remnants that western fashion is not current Kimes Ranch is walking the line between fashion forward and western folk friendly.  They have created an interactive website with lifestyle videos that give you a feel for their ranch life. Product videos and images that give you a clearer idea of what their products look like while in motion or styled in different ways and a blog featuring information about other complimentary brands, an inside look at the company, and other horse related topics.  The idea behind the website is to show the essence behind the brand.  With a long western history behind the Kimes Ranch name, Matt and Amanda Kimes are showing that history is the foundation for their classically inspired line of jeans.  Their new website showcases real cowgirls and cowboys on the actual Kimes Ranch living “Western Uncomplicated”, as their tag line reads.

“We are aware that not all of our clientele will see the new site, as we still cater to a diminishing group who would prefer to talk to someone in person rather than doing it themselves on a website.  However, there is a younger more fashion forward generation of cowgirls and cowboys who are Internet and social media savvy, we now cover both” claims Amanda Kimes. “Our purpose for this site was not only to showcase our products but to create a place where people could join our family and take in our culture.  We are fairly candid in our blog on what goes on in the company and our personal blog entries give you some insight into who we are as people.  This is business yes, but if we took ourselves too seriously, we would have taken a whole different approach to the site leaving out things like our Q and A and caricatures of our endorsees, which we refer to as family.” The website is meant to evoke emotion and build camaraderie as horsemen and women.  “We are building what we hope to be a lasting relationship with our customers.”

Their original website did the trick. Product could be viewed and purchased however, it left out this new connection with its audience.  Customers can now see the story of the company’s inception, Q and A’s with family and Mr. and Mrs. Kimes themselves, not to mention detailed pictures and videos on their products including 100 pictures depicting different ways to style your jeans.  All in all this fresh makeover makes a statement in an industry a little lack luster when it comes to ecommerce.  Kimes Ranch is raising the bar with a modern take on an iconic product and ensuring customer satisfaction at the same time.  They offer free shipping for returns and exchanges to ease your mind about purchasing online.  Also if you are unsure of your size you can email or call and speak to a “Ranch Hand” directly and they will talk you through the ordering process or take your order by phone.  The site is meant to be easy and enjoyable, and it is. The video on the home page at says more than you could ever express in words.

Matt and Amanda Kimes founded Kimes Ranch in 2009. The company was previously named Longhorn Jean Company but has been rebranded emulating the family culture of the company and the western heritage behind the Kimes name. Their Betty jean was featured in the “Best of the West” issue in Cowboys and Indians magazine and Horse and Rider Magazines May 2014 issue in an editorial on barn fashion requiring you to “not scrimp on style”.

Image Credit: Antonija

Press Release from:
Lindsay Donovan
Kimes Ranch


New Horse Breed Spanish Warmblood Needs Your Support

YES to Spanish Warmblood! Raising funds to secure the future of a unique classical horsemanship project.

For the last 25 years, Yardah Equeste Stud (YES), pioneered by Marjorie Armstrong, has been developing a new breed of horses: the Spanish Warmblood. They are now looking for supporters to bring this project to life by launching a crowd funding campaign on Monday 23 of June at Join the YES team.

Why a new breed?

Hybrid vigour of a crossbreeding becomes lost after the first generation, unless the genetics are set with line breeding.”
As a result of Marji’s years of training horses and riders around the world in the art of classical horsemanship, YES wanted to create an alternative breed suitable for dressage, jumping and classical equestrian art. In other words, a horse showing outstanding balance between physical build, movement, soundness, sensitivity, generosity and willingness. The first progeny produced the template for a horse able to achieve the characteristics above.

How was this achieved?

Inspired by the developing of the Australian Merino & Corriedale sheep, Yardah’s ambitious genetic research programme has been skilfully crafting a new pure breed of horses. The answer lay in merging Andalusian and Thoroughbred genetics through line breeding. This allowed setting a genetic pattern for the Spanish Warmblood. Thanks to these efforts, the Spanish Warmblood is now classified and registered as a distinct new pure breed. An initiative that has not been undertaken for over 100 years.

The results:

In May the 9th 2013, the Horse & Hound weekly magazine (U.K.), observed that “the ultimate dressage breed would be an Iberian X Warmblood”, but that “with today’s economics, few can afford to experiment.” The editors were surprised to discover “that the Spanish Warmblood breed already exists as a distinct new pure breed as compared to a crossbreed program.” Yardah Stud has pioneered this new pure breed.

The next level:

With the Spanish Warmblood breed now ready to be launched, YES wants to involve supporters to propel this unique initiative to an international level through a solid ten year plan. Raising funds through the upcoming crowd funding campaign will assist:

· Marketing and distributing sales of the breed, in the form of both semen and livestock.

· Creating the first semen collection facility in Western Australia that fulfils the Artificial Insemination protocols of North America and Europe.

· Putting 200 horses around the world through frozen semen within the first year, to increase the biological critical mass of the breed to ensure genetic diversity by widening the gene pool.

· Promoting the breed as horses of the highest calibre for all levels of competition for the future.

· Keeping Yardah as a cultural classical equestrian centre of international dimension.

· Publishing Marji’s horse training most awaited works: “Demystifying Classical Horsemanship” and “Gymnastic Exercises For The Athletic Equine”.

· Releasing the first four DVDs of a series covering instructional In-hand and Lungeing exercises.

The campaign:

On Monday 23 of June, Yardah Stud is proud to announce the launch of a crowd funding campaign at Anyone can participate, from one dollar to all the way to the top. Each pledge will be thanked and rewarded with awesome goodies, outstanding stays in Yardah’s cottage and private training sessions with Marji.

Explore the campaign at Join the YES team and seize this incredible opportunity to become a team mate of this unique adventure!

About Yardah Equestrian Centre: Situated in Cranbrook, Western Australia, Yardah Stud has been a pioneering centre of horse genetic research and a world class reference centre for classical horsemanship for over 25 years. Through its activities and unique culture, YES is also a powerful economical asset to the area. People coming from all over Australia and overseas to the Stud, are a testimony of its international standing. More info about:

The centre: Yardah Stud –

The horses: Yardah Stud Horses –

The training:  Classical Horsemastership International –

About Marjorie Armstrong: In addition to the breeding program, Marji is one of the pioneers of the classical philosophy of horsemanship in Australia (achieving results in harmony and cooperation with the horse rather than by domination). She has trained in Europe with acknowledged masters including Luis Valenca Rodrigues, Nuno Oliveira and Le Cadre Noir at Saumur, France. With over 45 world tours since 1992, she has trained thousands of horses and riders in Africa, UK, Europe, USA, Canada, New Zealand, Asia and Australia. More info at:

The raw horse Year of the Horse photo exhibit needs your help

Equine Photographer Sebastiano Vitale needs your help to get ready for major art exhibit for the year of the horse.

Sebastiano Vitale, has been invited to do two major solo art exhibits in the Chinese museums, the Today Art Museum Beijing and the Sculpture Park Shanghai. 4.000 square meters in Shanghai and the entire second floor in Beijing. It will be all about my photography. It is a huge dream for Sebastiano Vitale. The project’s name is, “The Raw Horse” and it has been chosen to celebrate the Year of the Horse.

But the museums do not pay for prints, transport, travel, catalogues, everything else that is needed to put on a display of this size, but they would give Sebastiano Vitale an exposure optionality of a lifetime. Sebastiano has set up a crowd funding campaign where you can help this artist to achieve this dream. You can donate anything from $25 to $5000 (and receive gifts and rewards in exchange).

Please visit the link below to find out more and to donate:

The Raw Horse – Year of the horse – museum exhibitions in china | Indiegogo –

Please also view this video with an explanation of the project ▶ The Raw Horse – The Year of the Horse – YouTube –

The project website is at

Sebastiano Vitale

USA: +1 6465410947
Europe: +39 3357618286
seba.vitale @ gmail . com
Skype: seba_vitale

Benefits of equine therapy for troubled teens

The bonds that connect animals and humans are often described in glowing terms: “healing,” “touching” even “life-altering.” And when troubled teens – those with behavioral or emotional challenges that significantly impede their progress – are matched with horses, the therapeutic value of these interactions can become particularly powerful.

equine therapy
equine therapy

By some accounts, troubled teens are often in a constant state of aggression, defiance or anger and all too often a vicious circle comes into play. Chemicals are released into their bodies as these “negative” emotions escalate and this release subsequently raises the level of these passions to an even higher pitch. At that point, they might begin spiraling out of control.

Because it boosts the amount of endorphins in their system, horse therapy can help these young people bring their chemical balance back into control. And once that starts to happen, teens are positioned to benefit from spending time with their equine friends.

Horse and Teen
Horse and Teen

Horses cannot speak, or at least they cannot speak in the way we humans do. But they can still manage to make themselves clearly understood by alert bystanders who decode their body language. As they stand in their stalls, they might be signaling that they are relaxed. Or, are they might be “shouting” stay away; don’t get too near me. When teens become adept at interpreting the messages equines are sending to them, they often gain some valuable insights about how their own body language is impacting upon others.


As they care for horses – feed them, clean them, water them – troubled teens are obliged to focus intently on what they are doing. So, performing these tasks can grant them a respite, although not necessarily an escape, from the mental turmoil that all too often threatens to overwhelm them. Equine Therapy Programs for Troubled Teens –

And caring for horses not only demands focus it also demands learning new skills, ones that can only be gained through experience. Communicating with the instructor who guides them through this process might help troubled teens become more comfortable when socializing.  Another consideration: The positive feedback they receive from the instructor or from horses could make it easier for them to counteract negative messages that are being tossed their way by those around them.

As teens gravitate towards adulthood, they maneuver themselves through some essential rites of passage: learning to drive, getting their first job, attending a prom, applying to college. Troubled teens might not be equipped to handle these rituals that come so naturally to others, a fact that might further harm their already fragile self images. But they might gain some valuable self-confidence as they prove themselves uniquely adept at dealing with horses, sentiments that could bode well for all aspects of their life.


You cannot simply bring teens into contact with horses and expect these young people’s behavior to miraculously improve. Rather, their progress may depend, at least in part, upon how skilled their instructor is at nurturing their talents. And hoping to upgrade the skill set of these professionals is PATH International – (Professional Association of Therapeutic Horsemanship International) has long run a training program for them. It has certified 4,200 instructors, and administers 850 member centers around the globe.

“Our (certified instructors) think in terms of possibilities,” Cher Smith, PATH Internationals’ communications coordinator, said. Those possibilities are always out there no matter what type of special emotional, physical or cognitive needs a rider might have.”

— end —

Guess article by Harriet Tramer

Harriet Tramer’s book – Racing to Heaven
– presents an extreme case of a very troubled teen, the narrator, finding solace in horses.  Despite the fact she had always been heavy and considered awkward, she manages to show great agility and “bravery” as she works her way through a series of mysterious horses.  Her prowess leads her from local shows to a race track where she eventually becomes enmeshed in a grudge match with another girl jockey.  Is this an example of horses proving life altering for a troubled teen? Or, is this girl’s narrative nothing more than the product of the narrators over active imagination? I she simply a young girl bent on self-destruction who uses horses as her tool down this tragic path? Read the book and decide for yourself.

About the Author Harriet Tramer

Harriet Tramer has spent more years than she might care to remember working as both a journalist and a college instructor. And if nothing else, her experiences have taught her that these two professions definitely share one thing in common. They both demand good communication skills, not to mention patience and understanding. When she first began writing, she worked for a daily newspaper – “The Cleveland Press” – writing mostly community news. However, over time, she has graduated first to business publications, such as CBC Magazine and “Crain’s Cleveland Business.” More recently, she has taken her journalist ventures on line, having her own blog

This book – Racing to Heaven – represents her first major foray into fiction writing. However, she has also written a text – Rounding the Circle of Love: Growing Up As She Grows Old – that focuses upon care giving for the elderly. As an instructor, she has gone from teaching classes with as many as 100 students to teaching strictly on line. And she has come to believe that the latter has some definite advantages in that it allows students to communicate their thoughts without feeling intimidated as might be the case in a more traditional classroom setting.

Jeans made by riders for riders

Kimes Ranch Celebrates The Re-launch of Their Women’s Jean

Kimes Ranch American Made Betty Jean Has Been a Sold Out Hit

(SCOTTSDALE, May 7th, 2014)- Kimes Ranch women’s jean, “The Betty” has been so popular they have been sold out for months.  Matt and Amanda Kimes the owners and founders of Kimes Ranch, a western apparel company, set high standards for their products.  Sourcing only the finest quality materials and workmanship.  When “The Betty’s” popularity took off the couple had to pull the reins on sales so that their specially selected denim could be put back into production. The jeans popularity has been largely due to its uncompromising comfort, durability and fit.  Created for women who live the western life.  These American made jeans were made by riders for riders. “The Betty” is back in stock now and can be ordered online at

Matt and Amanda Kimes are a young couple with deep roots in ranching and a long list of titles in AQHA and NRHA events, including numerous World Championships. The couple had grown tired of trying to find a jean that fit their multifaceted lifestyle. “We were on a mission to find a better fitting jean that was comfortable while riding, durable enough to handle a hard days work on our ranch and fashionable enough to wear off the ranch but we always came up empty handed” explained Amanda.  Instead of settling for what current brands offered, Matt and Amanda decided to build their own jeans.  “The Betty jean encompasses all the elements that we wanted on our check list.  It’s THE jean missing in the marketplace.  Anyone who tries it is an immediate fan. Someone commented on our facebook page the other day that “this is the best jean they have ever worn!! Everyone needs ten pair” and she literally owns ten pair she told us.  We are successful because of fans like this,” claimed Amanda.

Their flagship women’s jean has been an obvious sell out hit for women of all ages, styles and sizes.  With a classic feel “The Betty” jean is a fantastic canvas to compliment each individual’s own western style.  With a superb slim-fit, boot cut and mid-rise this jean has just 1% spandex, enough to give in all the right places. Their quest for perfection did not end with the women’s line, however, as their men’s line has also taken into consideration elements that other brands have missed.  More flattering pocket placement and an extra knife pocket are among the small details that have made their men’s jeans stand out.  Not to mention that they are self proclaimed as  “the most comfortable jean in the world!” Kimes Ranch carefully crafted the ultimate horsemen’s jean for both men and women.

Matt and Amanda Kimes founded Kimes Ranch in 2009. Their brand emulates its strong family culture and lifestyle approach in its products. Matt and Amanda even name their jean styles after the animals on the ranch.  “The Betty” and “Barney” styles were named after their longhorn cows, and Barney remains the ranch mascot and was the inspiration for the Horn pockets they are famous for. “The Betty” jean was also featured in the “Best of the West” issue in Cowboys and Indians magazine and Horse and Rider Magazines May 2014 issue in an editorial on barn fashion requiring you to “not scrimp on style”.

Credit: Antonija

Lindsay Perraton
Kimes Ranch

Standlee teams up with the ASPCA help horses in need

Standlee Forage Drive – You Can Be The Difference!

In their ongoing commitment to improving the lives of horses, Standlee Premium Western Forage® has teamed up with the ASPCA Equine Fund to donate up to 15,000 pounds of high-quality Premium Western Forage® to horses in need.

Two horses eating hay
Two horses eating hay (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 Here’s how it works:

Standlee Premium Western Forage® will donate up to 9 pounds of forage per participant based on the following:

1. Each new subscriber to Standlee’s Newsletter (3 lbs donated);

2. Each Facebook “Like” of the Standlee® “You Can Be The Difference” Charity Program page at (3lbs donated); and

3. Sharing, via Facebook, the “You Can Be The Difference” Charity Program page at (3lbs donated). The above options are CUMULATIVE, so for each person who does all three of the above, Standlee will donate 9 pounds of Premium Western Forage to horses who need it! Also, you can complete all three of these options from the same webpage, so it is super easy to do!

Here’s how you can help:

Share this information! More participation means more food for needy horses. To maximize the donation to the ASPCA Equine Fund we need at least 1,667 people to participate and complete all 3 of the above steps during the month of May. If you would like to participate, please keep in mind that this charity program ends on May 31, 2014.   Wendy Ferrell SmartClick Advertising 850 S. 400 W. Suite 102 Salt Lake City, UT 84101 Cell: (915) 276-2083

Review of Beyond Horse Massage DVD by Jim Masterson

This is a review of the DVD, Beyond Horse Massage by Jim Masterson.

One of the facts of modern life is that it is usually stressful, for humans and horses. Jim Masterson has developed a unique method of equine body work that helps release built up stress by working with and listening to the horse.  In this DVD Jim has put together a set of simple lessons to help you learn to do the same.

With this DVD you can learn to help relieve your horse of tension which left untreated could lead to pain and bad performance. Through simple lessons you will learn to recognize the responses of your horse to your touch to help release tension in key body areas that most affect work performance.

Beyond Horse Massage DVD
Beyond Horse Massage DVD

Partnership in healing

I like that the lessons show you clearly how to work with your horse in a safe and gentle manner. For most of the work on your horse you don’t need to use much pressure. Most of the pressure used with your fingers and hands is very light. That means that even some of us older horse owners can put this method into practice even if we don’t have a lot of upper body strength. That also means that even when you are tired after a long day at work you can head to the barn and do some of this stress releasing bodywork without wearing yourself out. You work softly with your horse to gently release tension that builds up in his or her body. All horse owners can learn to do this healing work on their horse just by following the lessons in this DVD.

New Levels of Communication and Trust

Since you will be working with your horse in such a slow and gentle manner your horse will develop a deeper level of trust in you. And because you have to pay very close attention to the horse’s body language as you work you will develop better communication skills with your horse. This body work takes time and patience but is very rewarding.

Simple and Easy Lessons

The DVD is setup with chapters that hold the lessons being taught. You can take your time and watch just one chapter a day if you have limited time. When you own the DVD you can watch when you want, as much as you want, and watch lessons over again whenever needed.

Jim talks about the horse’s body structure but you don’t have to learn and memorize the names of the bones and muscles to work effectively with your horse. If you don’t like learning anatomy terminology you don’t need too.

Improve your Riding

I really feel that learning these lessons and putting them into practice regularly will help you develop into a much better rider — a rider that is much more aware of the effects of their posture, pressures, and actions and how they affect their horse. I think you may learn to sit more centered and balanced with a lighter touch through the reins because you will be more likely to notice the subtle reactions your horse gives you throughout the ride.

Professional Quality Video & Audio

I was impressed with the professional quality of this DVD video. It is well made – professionally filmed with good, clear, well-lit scenes, and the audio is excellent. I can tell that a great amount of time and effort went into the layout of the lessons. The lessons are placed in chapters that have nice title screens. There is also digital horse graphics along with the video scenes to show the area of the body that they are talking about.

“The simplest, fastest, and gentlest method I’ve found to help a horse feel better, be more relaxed, free in movement.”
— Lynda Richardson (one of the testimonials from the many posted on the site)

Extra Features

At the end of the DVD there are a few short behind-the-scenes video snips that are fun.

Parting Thoughts

I highly recommend this DVD for anyone that has or rides/works with horses. Please visit to learn more.

About Jim Masterson, Equine Massage Therapist

Jim Masterson, Equine Massage Therapist for the 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012 USET Endurance Teams, and for equine clientèle competing in FEI World Cup, Pan American and World Games competitions, teaches a unique method of equine body work to equine massage therapists and horse owners, in which the practitioner recognizes and follows the responses of the horse to touch to release tension in key junctions of the body that most affect performance. When he first became interested in equine massage in 1997, Jim recognized that the horse exhibits certain neurological responses to touch as it releases tension in the body. Using those responses to guide his work, he developed a system in which the horse participates in the process by showing the practitioner where tension has accumulated, precisely how much pressure is needed to release it, and when it has been released. The result is an effective method of equine massage body work that anyone can learn to use, to improve performance while at the same time opening new levels of communication and trust with the horse.

Virtual book tour for the Horse Lover A Cowboy’s Quest to Save the Wild Mustangs

The Horse Lover - Book Cover
The Horse Lover – Book Cover

The Horse Lover By H. Alan Day

Thank you to ALove4Horses for hosting me on this virtual book tour celebration for the ‘Horse Lover: A Cowboy’s Quest to Save the Wild Mustangs’. I look forward to interacting with your audience and welcome their comments or questions.

A little more than ten years ago, my sister, Sandra Day O’Connor, and I co-authored a memoir called Lazy B, about growing up on our family’s southwestern cattle ranch. If you look closely, you’ll see my name below Sandra’s; it has progressively grown smaller over the years. And rightly so.

Well, I figured if I wrote half a book, I could write an entire book. I had a story stuffed in my back pocket that I was eager to share with horse people as well as ranchers, animal lovers, and anyone interested in a good adventure tale. The story was about creating the first government-sponsored wild horse sanctuary and caring for 1500 wild mustangs over four years.

Yep, that’s what I did after purchasing a gorgeous South Dakota ranch. It was the third ranch I owned and needed it about as much as I needed a permanent migraine. But it lured me in with its sea of rippling prairie grass and the songs of meadowlarks and whistling winds. I already had plenty of cattle on the Arizona and Nebraska ranches and didn’t want to risk running more head. I was in a real quandary of what to do with those 35,000 acres of pristine prairie.

That’s when an opportunity dropped in my lap. A ran into a long-time cowboy named Dayton Hyde who told me about the plight of the wild horses. We ended up lobbying Congress and getting a bill passed that allowed us to work with the Bureau of Land Management and create what I called a retirement home for unadoptable wild horses. Dayton received 300 horses on his ranch in the Black Hills of South Dakota and I received 1500 horses on Mustang Meadows Ranch in the Sand Hills of South Dakota. The one-eyed, the old, the scarred – those were the horses we received.

As you might guess, my crew of cowboys and I had quite the adventures managing the wild horses and working with the government. My memory bank is loaded with glorious moments. Like galloping across the prairie, 1200 horses in tow, the closest eight feet behind me. Wonder if my “whoops” still hang in the air. Other memories carry frustration and even sadness, but never regret. Because the best years of my forty-plus years of ranching and cowboying occurred on that special piece of land in the middle of our country caring for the animals that most define freedom.

So I invite you to read The Horse Lover: A Cowboy’s Quest to Save the Wild Mustangs, a story about these amazing animals and the adventure one man had with them. I don’t think it’s a spoiler alert to tell you that the American Dream is alive and well.

Photo of the The Horse Lovers Virtual Book Tour Banner
The Horse Lovers Virtual Book Tour Banner

Happy trails and happy reading.


Photo of Book Author H. Alan Day
Book Author H. Alan Day

H. Alan Day
Alan Day’s upbringing branded him a cowboy from the day he was born. He was part of the third generation to grow up on the 200,000-acre Lazy B cattle ranch straddling the high deserts of southern Arizona and New Mexico. The ranching and cowboy lifestyle appealed to him so greatly that after graduating from the University of Arizona, he returned to manage Lazy B for the next 40 years. During his career, he received numerous awards for his dedicated stewardship of the land.  In the 1980’s, Alan purchased a cattle ranch in Nebraska and soon after, a ranch in South Dakota. The latter became the first government-sponsored sanctuary for unadoptable wild horses. He developed and successfully used a herd modification-training program for his 2000 head of cattle and 1500 wild mustangs.

Alan and his sister, Sandra Day O’Connor, co-authored the New York Times bestselling memoir, Lazy B, which chronicles the story of the Day family and growing up on a harsh yet beautiful southwestern ranch. Alan is a member of Western Writers of America. Now retired, he divides his time between Tucson and Pinetop, AZ.


New Horse Book Racing to Heaven

Book: Racing to Heaven by Harriet Tramer (Author)
Book: Racing to Heaven by Harriet Tramer (Author)

Racing to Heaven

The horses in this book go galloping through the pages, as they display great athleticism. But do they really leap over fences that are treacherously high or race at breakneck speed towards the finish line? Or, are they simply the product of the narrator’s vivid imagination? Teen age girls like here are, after all, prone to dramatizations. Some readers will argue for the first interpretation, while others might favor the latter. But those who simply enjoy the read will probably be selecting the best option.

A little bit about the book author:

Harriet Tramer has spent more years than she might care to remember working as both a journalist and a college instructor. Most recently, she has taken her journalist ventures on line, having her own blog

And she has also been doing a radio show on bbsradio entitled “Reaching for the Gold.” This program deals with aging, but that term is interpreted as broadly as possibly to create a wide interest. This book – Racing to Heaven – represents her first major foray into fiction writing. However, she has also written a text – Rounding the Circle of Love: Growing Up As She Grows Old – that focuses upon care giving for the elderly.

As an instructor, she has taught at Cleveland State University, Cuyahoga Community College and the New School. She has Masters Degree in both Urban Studies and Communication.